Teratogenicity of DUV Photoresist
Steele, Valerie * (Intel)
Keller, Randal (Murray State University )
Gupta, Ramesh (Breathitt Research Center)
Canning, David (Murray State University)
The purpose of this research was to study the teratogenic potential of DUV (Deep Ultraviolet) photoresist on avian embryonic tissue during very early developmental stages and correlate these in human embryos. Specifically, we examined neural tube closure, heart defects, cephalic formation, and axial defects. The embryo contained in the vitelline membrane was removed and cultured into a petri dish. The application of the DUV photoresist followed and the embryo incubated with four control embryos for 20 h at 38 degrees Celcius. The embryos were then analyzed by digital photomicroscopy. The effects of DUV photoresist were studied at three concentrations: 6 ppm, 3 ppm, and 1.5 ppm. At 6 ppm of DUV photoresist, embyrolethality was produced in 3 of 4 embryos tested. The single embryo that survived treatment showed failure of neural tube closure (spina bifida-like malformation). At 3 ppm, 7 embryos showed various malformations including abnormal head development, incomplete neural tube closure, and extensive axial defects. Importantly, the heart appeared to develop normally, demonstrating a potential neural tissue specificity. At 1.5 ppm, malformations in seven of ten embryos demonstrated restriction of somite formation along the body axis. This embryo model system can be used in testing to establish specific teratogenic effects in early stages of development and the results extrapolated to humans due to the fact that the genes controlling early embryonic tissue and cell differentiation/development in chicks and humans are identical. Reproductive toxicity testing in the MSDS for this chemical using inhalation methods did not produce any teratogenic effects. Our results suggest that DUV photoresist produces teratogenic effects when present in the bloodstream at levels as low as 1.5 ppm.
[abstract as .pdf]